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Compare Distribution Tables

Compared to probability calculators (e.g., the one included in STATISTICA), the traditional format of distribution tables such as those presented below, has the advantage of showing many values simultaneously and, thus, enables the user to examine and quickly explore ranges of probabilities.

 

Note that all table values were calculated using the distribution facilities in STATISTICA BASIC, and they were verified against other published tables.

 

Standard Normal (Z) Table

The Standard Normal distribution is used in various hypothesis tests including tests on single means, the difference between two means, and tests on proportions. The Standard Normal distribution has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. The animation above shows various (left) tail areas for this distribution. For more information on the Normal Distribution as it is used in statistical testing, see Elementary Concepts. See also, Normal Distribution.

As shown in the illustration below, the values inside the given table represent the areas under the standard normal curve for values between 0 and the relative z-score. For example, to determine the area under the curve between 0 and 2.36, look in the intersecting cell for the row labeled 2.30 and the column labeled 0.06. The area under the curve is .4909. To determine the area between 0 and a negative value, look in the intersecting cell of the row and column which sums to the absolute value of the number in question. For example, the area under the curve between -1.3 and 0 is equal to the area under the curve between 1.3 and 0, so look at the cell on the 1.3 row and the 0.00 column (the area is 0.4032).

Area between 0 and z
  0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09
0.0 0.0000 0.0040 0.0080 0.0120 0.0160 0.0199 0.0239 0.0279 0.0319 0.0359
0.1 0.0398 0.0438 0.0478 0.0517 0.0557 0.0596 0.0636 0.0675 0.0714 0.0753
0.2 0.0793 0.0832 0.0871 0.0910 0.0948 0.0987 0.1026 0.1064 0.1103 0.1141
0.3 0.1179 0.1217 0.1255 0.1293 0.1331 0.1368 0.1406 0.1443 0.1480 0.1517
0.4 0.1554 0.1591 0.1628 0.1664 0.1700 0.1736 0.1772 0.1808 0.1844 0.1879
0.5 0.1915 0.1950 0.1985 0.2019 0.2054 0.2088 0.2123 0.2157 0.2190 0.2224
0.6 0.2257 0.2291 0.2324 0.2357 0.2389 0.2422 0.2454 0.2486 0.2517 0.2549
0.7 0.2580 0.2611 0.2642 0.2673 0.2704 0.2734 0.2764 0.2794 0.2823 0.2852
0.8 0.2881 0.2910 0.2939 0.2967 0.2995 0.3023 0.3051 0.3078 0.3106 0.3133
0.9 0.3159 0.3186 0.3212 0.3238 0.3264 0.3289 0.3315 0.3340 0.3365 0.3389
1.0 0.3413 0.3438 0.3461 0.3485 0.3508 0.3531 0.3554 0.3577 0.3599 0.3621
1.1 0.3643 0.3665 0.3686 0.3708 0.3729 0.3749 0.3770 0.3790 0.3810 0.3830
1.2 0.3849 0.3869 0.3888 0.3907 0.3925 0.3944 0.3962 0.3980 0.3997 0.4015
1.3 0.4032 0.4049 0.4066 0.4082 0.4099 0.4115 0.4131 0.4147 0.4162 0.4177
1.4 0.4192 0.4207 0.4222 0.4236 0.4251 0.4265 0.4279 0.4292 0.4306 0.4319
1.5 0.4332 0.4345 0.4357 0.4370 0.4382 0.4394 0.4406 0.4418 0.4429 0.4441
1.6 0.4452 0.4463 0.4474 0.4484 0.4495 0.4505 0.4515 0.4525 0.4535 0.4545
1.7 0.4554 0.4564 0.4573 0.4582 0.4591 0.4599 0.4608 0.4616 0.4625 0.4633
1.8 0.4641 0.4649 0.4656 0.4664 0.4671 0.4678 0.4686 0.4693 0.4699 0.4706
1.9 0.4713 0.4719 0.4726 0.4732 0.4738 0.4744 0.4750 0.4756 0.4761 0.4767
2.0 0.4772 0.4778 0.4783 0.4788 0.4793 0.4798 0.4803 0.4808 0.4812 0.4817
2.1 0.4821 0.4826 0.4830 0.4834 0.4838 0.4842 0.4846 0.4850 0.4854 0.4857
2.2 0.4861 0.4864 0.4868 0.4871 0.4875 0.4878 0.4881 0.4884 0.4887 0.4890
2.3 0.4893 0.4896 0.4898 0.4901 0.4904 0.4906 0.4909 0.4911 0.4913 0.4916
2.4 0.4918 0.4920 0.4922 0.4925 0.4927 0.4929 0.4931 0.4932 0.4934 0.4936
2.5 0.4938 0.4940 0.4941 0.4943 0.4945 0.4946 0.4948 0.4949 0.4951 0.4952
2.6 0.4953 0.4955 0.4956 0.4957 0.4959 0.4960 0.4961 0.4962 0.4963 0.4964
2.7 0.4965 0.4966 0.4967 0.4968 0.4969 0.4970 0.4971 0.4972 0.4973 0.4974
2.8 0.4974 0.4975 0.4976 0.4977 0.4977 0.4978 0.4979 0.4979 0.4980 0.4981
2.9 0.4981 0.4982 0.4982 0.4983 0.4984 0.4984 0.4985 0.4985 0.4986 0.4986
3.0 0.4987 0.4987 0.4987 0.4988 0.4988 0.4989 0.4989 0.4989 0.4990 0.4990
To index

 

Student's t Table

The Shape of the Student's t distribution is determined by the degrees of freedom. As shown in the animation above, its shape changes as the degrees of freedom increases. For more information on how this distribution is used in hypothesis testing, see t-test for independent samples and t-test for dependent samples in Basic Statistics and Tables. See also, Student's t Distribution. As indicated by the chart below, the areas given at the top of this table are the right tail areas for the t-value inside the table. To determine the 0.05 critical value from the t-distribution with 6 degrees of freedom, look in the 0.05 column at the 6 row: t(.05,6) = 1.943180.

t table with right tail probabilities
df\p 0.40 0.25 0.10 0.05 0.025 0.01 0.005 0.0005
1 0.324920 1.000000 3.077684 6.313752 12.70620 31.82052 63.65674 636.6192
2 0.288675 0.816497 1.885618 2.919986 4.30265 6.96456 9.92484 31.5991
3 0.276671 0.764892 1.637744 2.353363 3.18245 4.54070 5.84091 12.9240
4 0.270722 0.740697 1.533206 2.131847 2.77645 3.74695 4.60409 8.6103
5 0.267181 0.726687 1.475884 2.015048 2.57058 3.36493 4.03214 6.8688
 
6 0.264835 0.717558 1.439756 1.943180 2.44691 3.14267 3.70743 5.9588
7 0.263167 0.711142 1.414924 1.894579 2.36462 2.99795 3.49948 5.4079
8 0.261921 0.706387 1.396815 1.859548 2.30600 2.89646 3.35539 5.0413
9 0.260955 0.702722 1.383029 1.833113 2.26216 2.82144 3.24984 4.7809
10 0.260185 0.699812 1.372184 1.812461 2.22814 2.76377 3.16927 4.5869
 
11 0.259556 0.697445 1.363430 1.795885 2.20099 2.71808 3.10581 4.4370
12 0.259033 0.695483 1.356217 1.782288 2.17881 2.68100 3.05454 4.3178
13 0.258591 0.693829 1.350171 1.770933 2.16037 2.65031 3.01228 4.2208
14 0.258213 0.692417 1.345030 1.761310 2.14479 2.62449 2.97684 4.1405
15 0.257885 0.691197 1.340606 1.753050 2.13145 2.60248 2.94671 4.0728
 
16 0.257599 0.690132 1.336757 1.745884 2.11991 2.58349 2.92078 4.0150
17 0.257347 0.689195 1.333379 1.739607 2.10982 2.56693 2.89823 3.9651
18 0.257123 0.688364 1.330391 1.734064 2.10092 2.55238 2.87844 3.9216
19 0.256923 0.687621 1.327728 1.729133 2.09302 2.53948 2.86093 3.8834
20 0.256743 0.686954 1.325341 1.724718 2.08596 2.52798 2.84534 3.8495
 
21 0.256580 0.686352 1.323188 1.720743 2.07961 2.51765 2.83136 3.8193
22 0.256432 0.685805 1.321237 1.717144 2.07387 2.50832 2.81876 3.7921
23 0.256297 0.685306 1.319460 1.713872 2.06866 2.49987 2.80734 3.7676
24 0.256173 0.684850 1.317836 1.710882 2.06390 2.49216 2.79694 3.7454
25 0.256060 0.684430 1.316345 1.708141 2.05954 2.48511 2.78744 3.7251
 
26 0.255955 0.684043 1.314972 1.705618 2.05553 2.47863 2.77871 3.7066
27 0.255858 0.683685 1.313703 1.703288 2.05183 2.47266 2.77068 3.6896
28 0.255768 0.683353 1.312527 1.701131 2.04841 2.46714 2.76326 3.6739
29 0.255684 0.683044 1.311434 1.699127 2.04523 2.46202 2.75639 3.6594
30 0.255605 0.682756 1.310415 1.697261 2.04227 2.45726 2.75000 3.6460
 
inf 0.253347 0.674490 1.281552 1.644854 1.95996 2.32635 2.57583 3.2905
To index

 

Chi-Square Table

Like the Student's t-Distribution, the Chi-square distribution's shape is determined by its degrees of freedom. The animation above shows the shape of the Chi-square distribution as the degrees of freedom increase (1, 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50). For examples of tests of hypothesis that use the Chi-square distribution, see Statistics in crosstabulation tables in Basic Statistics and Tables as well as Nonlinear Estimation . See also, Chi-square Distribution. As shown in the illustration below, the values inside this table are critical values of the Chi-square distribution with the corresponding degrees of freedom. To determine the value from a Chi-square distribution (with a specific degree of freedom) which has a given area above it, go to the given area column and the desired degree of freedom row. For example, the .25 critical value for a Chi-square with 4 degrees of freedom is 5.38527. This means that the area to the right of 5.38527 in a Chi-square distribution with 4 degrees of freedom is .25.

Right tail areas for the Chi-square Distribution
df\area .995 .990 .975 .950 .900 .750 .500 .250 .100 .050 .025 .010 .005
1 0.00004 0.00016 0.00098 0.00393 0.01579 0.10153 0.45494 1.32330 2.70554 3.84146 5.02389 6.63490 7.87944
2 0.01003 0.02010 0.05064 0.10259 0.21072 0.57536 1.38629 2.77259 4.60517 5.99146 7.37776 9.21034 10.59663
3 0.07172 0.11483 0.21580 0.35185 0.58437 1.21253 2.36597 4.10834 6.25139 7.81473 9.34840 11.34487 12.83816
4 0.20699 0.29711 0.48442 0.71072 1.06362 1.92256 3.35669 5.38527 7.77944 9.48773 11.14329 13.27670 14.86026
5 0.41174 0.55430 0.83121 1.14548 1.61031 2.67460 4.35146 6.62568 9.23636 11.07050 12.83250 15.08627 16.74960
 
6 0.67573 0.87209 1.23734 1.63538 2.20413 3.45460 5.34812 7.84080 10.64464 12.59159 14.44938 16.81189 18.54758
7 0.98926 1.23904 1.68987 2.16735 2.83311 4.25485 6.34581 9.03715 12.01704 14.06714 16.01276 18.47531 20.27774
8 1.34441 1.64650 2.17973 2.73264 3.48954 5.07064 7.34412 10.21885 13.36157 15.50731 17.53455 20.09024 21.95495
9 1.73493 2.08790 2.70039 3.32511 4.16816 5.89883 8.34283 11.38875 14.68366 16.91898 19.02277 21.66599 23.58935
10 2.15586 2.55821 3.24697 3.94030 4.86518 6.73720 9.34182 12.54886 15.98718 18.30704 20.48318 23.20925 25.18818
 
11 2.60322 3.05348 3.81575 4.57481 5.57778 7.58414 10.34100 13.70069 17.27501 19.67514 21.92005 24.72497 26.75685
12 3.07382 3.57057 4.40379 5.22603 6.30380 8.43842 11.34032 14.84540 18.54935 21.02607 23.33666 26.21697 28.29952
13 3.56503 4.10692 5.00875 5.89186 7.04150 9.29907 12.33976 15.98391 19.81193 22.36203 24.73560 27.68825 29.81947
14 4.07467 4.66043 5.62873 6.57063 7.78953 10.16531 13.33927 17.11693 21.06414 23.68479 26.11895 29.14124 31.31935
15 4.60092 5.22935 6.26214 7.26094 8.54676 11.03654 14.33886 18.24509 22.30713 24.99579 27.48839 30.57791 32.80132
 
16 5.14221 5.81221 6.90766 7.96165 9.31224 11.91222 15.33850 19.36886 23.54183 26.29623 28.84535 31.99993 34.26719
17 5.69722 6.40776 7.56419 8.67176 10.08519 12.79193 16.33818 20.48868 24.76904 27.58711 30.19101 33.40866 35.71847
18 6.26480 7.01491 8.23075 9.39046 10.86494 13.67529 17.33790 21.60489 25.98942 28.86930 31.52638 34.80531 37.15645
19 6.84397 7.63273 8.90652 10.11701 11.65091 14.56200 18.33765 22.71781 27.20357 30.14353 32.85233 36.19087 38.58226
20 7.43384 8.26040 9.59078 10.85081 12.44261 15.45177 19.33743 23.82769 28.41198 31.41043 34.16961 37.56623 39.99685
 
21 8.03365 8.89720 10.28290 11.59131 13.23960 16.34438 20.33723 24.93478 29.61509 32.67057 35.47888 38.93217 41.40106
22 8.64272 9.54249 10.98232 12.33801 14.04149 17.23962 21.33704 26.03927 30.81328 33.92444 36.78071 40.28936 42.79565
23 9.26042 10.19572 11.68855 13.09051 14.84796 18.13730 22.33688 27.14134 32.00690 35.17246 38.07563 41.63840 44.18128
24 9.88623 10.85636 12.40115 13.84843 15.65868 19.03725 23.33673 28.24115 33.19624 36.41503 39.36408 42.97982 45.55851
25 10.51965 11.52398 13.11972 14.61141 16.47341 19.93934 24.33659 29.33885 34.38159 37.65248 40.64647 44.31410 46.92789
 
26 11.16024 12.19815 13.84390 15.37916 17.29188 20.84343 25.33646 30.43457 35.56317 38.88514 41.92317 45.64168 48.28988
27 11.80759 12.87850 14.57338 16.15140 18.11390 21.74940 26.33634 31.52841 36.74122 40.11327 43.19451 46.96294 49.64492
28 12.46134 13.56471 15.30786 16.92788 18.93924 22.65716 27.33623 32.62049 37.91592 41.33714 44.46079 48.27824 50.99338
29 13.12115 14.25645 16.04707 17.70837 19.76774 23.56659 28.33613 33.71091 39.08747 42.55697 45.72229 49.58788 52.33562
30 13.78672 14.95346 16.79077 18.49266 20.59923 24.47761 29.33603 34.79974 40.25602 43.77297 46.97924 50.89218 53.67196
To index

F Distribution Tables

The F distribution is a right-skewed distribution used most commonly in Analysis of Variance (see ANOVA/MANOVA). The F distribution is a ratio of two Chi-square distributions, and a specific F distribution is denoted by the degrees of freedom for the numerator Chi-square and the degrees of freedom for the denominator Chi-square. An example of the F(10,10) distribution is shown in the animation above. When referencing the F distribution, the numerator degrees of freedom are always given first, as switching the order of degrees of freedom changes the distribution (e.g., F(10,12) does not equal F(12,10)). For the four F tables below, the rows represent denominator degrees of freedom and the columns represent numerator degrees of freedom. The right tail area is given in the name of the table. For example, to determine the .05 critical value for an F distribution with 10 and 12 degrees of freedom, look in the 10 column (numerator) and 12 row (denominator) of the F Table for alpha=.05. F(.05, 10, 12) = 2.7534.

F Table for alpha=.10

df2/df1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120 INF
1 39.86346 49.50000 53.59324 55.83296 57.24008 58.20442 58.90595 59.43898 59.85759 60.19498 60.70521 61.22034 61.74029 62.00205 62.26497 62.52905 62.79428 63.06064 63.32812
2 8.52632 9.00000 9.16179 9.24342 9.29263 9.32553 9.34908 9.36677 9.38054 9.39157 9.40813 9.42471 9.44131 9.44962 9.45793 9.46624 9.47456 9.48289 9.49122
3 5.53832 5.46238 5.39077 5.34264 5.30916 5.28473 5.26619 5.25167 5.24000 5.23041 5.21562 5.20031 5.18448 5.17636 5.16811 5.15972 5.15119 5.14251 5.13370
4 4.54477 4.32456 4.19086 4.10725 4.05058 4.00975 3.97897 3.95494 3.93567 3.91988 3.89553 3.87036 3.84434 3.83099 3.81742 3.80361 3.78957 3.77527 3.76073
5 4.06042 3.77972 3.61948 3.52020 3.45298 3.40451 3.36790 3.33928 3.31628 3.29740 3.26824 3.23801 3.20665 3.19052 3.17408 3.15732 3.14023 3.12279 3.10500
 
6 3.77595 3.46330 3.28876 3.18076 3.10751 3.05455 3.01446 2.98304 2.95774 2.93693 2.90472 2.87122 2.83634 2.81834 2.79996 2.78117 2.76195 2.74229 2.72216
7 3.58943 3.25744 3.07407 2.96053 2.88334 2.82739 2.78493 2.75158 2.72468 2.70251 2.66811 2.63223 2.59473 2.57533 2.55546 2.53510 2.51422 2.49279 2.47079
8 3.45792 3.11312 2.92380 2.80643 2.72645 2.66833 2.62413 2.58935 2.56124 2.53804 2.50196 2.46422 2.42464 2.40410 2.38302 2.36136 2.33910 2.31618 2.29257
9 3.36030 3.00645 2.81286 2.69268 2.61061 2.55086 2.50531 2.46941 2.44034 2.41632 2.37888 2.33962 2.29832 2.27683 2.25472 2.23196 2.20849 2.18427 2.15923
10 3.28502 2.92447 2.72767 2.60534 2.52164 2.46058 2.41397 2.37715 2.34731 2.32260 2.28405 2.24351 2.20074 2.17843 2.15543 2.13169 2.10716 2.08176 2.05542
 
11 3.22520 2.85951 2.66023 2.53619 2.45118 2.38907 2.34157 2.30400 2.27350 2.24823 2.20873 2.16709 2.12305 2.10001 2.07621 2.05161 2.02612 1.99965 1.97211
12 3.17655 2.80680 2.60552 2.48010 2.39402 2.33102 2.28278 2.24457 2.21352 2.18776 2.14744 2.10485 2.05968 2.03599 2.01149 1.98610 1.95973 1.93228 1.90361
13 3.13621 2.76317 2.56027 2.43371 2.34672 2.28298 2.23410 2.19535 2.16382 2.13763 2.09659 2.05316 2.00698 1.98272 1.95757 1.93147 1.90429 1.87591 1.84620
14 3.10221 2.72647 2.52222 2.39469 2.30694 2.24256 2.19313 2.15390 2.12195 2.09540 2.05371 2.00953 1.96245 1.93766 1.91193 1.88516 1.85723 1.82800 1.79728
15 3.07319 2.69517 2.48979 2.36143 2.27302 2.20808 2.15818 2.11853 2.08621 2.05932 2.01707 1.97222 1.92431 1.89904 1.87277 1.84539 1.81676 1.78672 1.75505
 
16 3.04811 2.66817 2.46181 2.33274 2.24376 2.17833 2.12800 2.08798 2.05533 2.02815 1.98539 1.93992 1.89127 1.86556 1.83879 1.81084 1.78156 1.75075 1.71817
17 3.02623 2.64464 2.43743 2.30775 2.21825 2.15239 2.10169 2.06134 2.02839 2.00094 1.95772 1.91169 1.86236 1.83624 1.80901 1.78053 1.75063 1.71909 1.68564
18 3.00698 2.62395 2.41601 2.28577 2.19583 2.12958 2.07854 2.03789 2.00467 1.97698 1.93334 1.88681 1.83685 1.81035 1.78269 1.75371 1.72322 1.69099 1.65671
19 2.98990 2.60561 2.39702 2.26630 2.17596 2.10936 2.05802 2.01710 1.98364 1.95573 1.91170 1.86471 1.81416 1.78731 1.75924 1.72979 1.69876 1.66587 1.63077
20 2.97465 2.58925 2.38009 2.24893 2.15823 2.09132 2.03970 1.99853 1.96485 1.93674 1.89236 1.84494 1.79384 1.76667 1.73822 1.70833 1.67678 1.64326 1.60738
 
21 2.96096 2.57457 2.36489 2.23334 2.14231 2.07512 2.02325 1.98186 1.94797 1.91967 1.87497 1.82715 1.77555 1.74807 1.71927 1.68896 1.65691 1.62278 1.58615
22 2.94858 2.56131 2.35117 2.21927 2.12794 2.06050 2.00840 1.96680 1.93273 1.90425 1.85925 1.81106 1.75899 1.73122 1.70208 1.67138 1.63885 1.60415 1.56678
23 2.93736 2.54929 2.33873 2.20651 2.11491 2.04723 1.99492 1.95312 1.91888 1.89025 1.84497 1.79643 1.74392 1.71588 1.68643 1.65535 1.62237 1.58711 1.54903
24 2.92712 2.53833 2.32739 2.19488 2.10303 2.03513 1.98263 1.94066 1.90625 1.87748 1.83194 1.78308 1.73015 1.70185 1.67210 1.64067 1.60726 1.57146 1.53270
25 2.91774 2.52831 2.31702 2.18424 2.09216 2.02406 1.97138 1.92925 1.89469 1.86578 1.82000 1.77083 1.71752 1.68898 1.65895 1.62718 1.59335 1.55703 1.51760
 
26 2.90913 2.51910 2.30749 2.17447 2.08218 2.01389 1.96104 1.91876 1.88407 1.85503 1.80902 1.75957 1.70589 1.67712 1.64682 1.61472 1.58050 1.54368 1.50360
27 2.90119 2.51061 2.29871 2.16546 2.07298 2.00452 1.95151 1.90909 1.87427 1.84511 1.79889 1.74917 1.69514 1.66616 1.63560 1.60320 1.56859 1.53129 1.49057
28 2.89385 2.50276 2.29060 2.15714 2.06447 1.99585 1.94270 1.90014 1.86520 1.83593 1.78951 1.73954 1.68519 1.65600 1.62519 1.59250 1.55753 1.51976 1.47841
29 2.88703 2.49548 2.28307 2.14941 2.05658 1.98781 1.93452 1.89184 1.85679 1.82741 1.78081 1.73060 1.67593 1.64655 1.61551 1.58253 1.54721 1.50899 1.46704
30 2.88069 2.48872 2.27607 2.14223 2.04925 1.98033 1.92692 1.88412 1.84896 1.81949 1.77270 1.72227 1.66731 1.63774 1.60648 1.57323 1.53757 1.49891 1.45636
 
40 2.83535 2.44037 2.22609 2.09095 1.99682 1.92688 1.87252 1.82886 1.79290 1.76269 1.71456 1.66241 1.60515 1.57411 1.54108 1.50562 1.46716 1.42476 1.37691
60 2.79107 2.39325 2.17741 2.04099 1.94571 1.87472 1.81939 1.77483 1.73802 1.70701 1.65743 1.60337 1.54349 1.51072 1.47554 1.43734 1.39520 1.34757 1.29146
120 2.74781 2.34734 2.12999 1.99230 1.89587 1.82381 1.76748 1.72196 1.68425 1.65238 1.60120 1.54500 1.48207 1.44723 1.40938 1.36760 1.32034 1.26457 1.19256
inf 2.70554 2.30259 2.08380 1.94486 1.84727 1.77411 1.71672 1.67020 1.63152 1.59872 1.54578 1.48714 1.42060 1.38318 1.34187 1.29513 1.23995 1.16860 1.00000
To index

F Table for alpha=.05

df2/df1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120 INF
1 161.4476 199.5000 215.7073 224.5832 230.1619 233.9860 236.7684 238.8827 240.5433 241.8817 243.9060 245.9499 248.0131 249.0518 250.0951 251.1432 252.1957 253.2529 254.3144
2 18.5128 19.0000 19.1643 19.2468 19.2964 19.3295 19.3532 19.3710 19.3848 19.3959 19.4125 19.4291 19.4458 19.4541 19.4624 19.4707 19.4791 19.4874 19.4957
3 10.1280 9.5521 9.2766 9.1172 9.0135 8.9406 8.8867 8.8452 8.8123 8.7855 8.7446 8.7029 8.6602 8.6385 8.6166 8.5944 8.5720 8.5494 8.5264
4 7.7086 6.9443 6.5914 6.3882 6.2561 6.1631 6.0942 6.0410 5.9988 5.9644 5.9117 5.8578 5.8025 5.7744 5.7459 5.7170 5.6877 5.6581 5.6281
5 6.6079 5.7861 5.4095 5.1922 5.0503 4.9503 4.8759 4.8183 4.7725 4.7351 4.6777 4.6188 4.5581 4.5272 4.4957 4.4638 4.4314 4.3985 4.3650
 
6 5.9874 5.1433 4.7571 4.5337 4.3874 4.2839 4.2067 4.1468 4.0990 4.0600 3.9999 3.9381 3.8742 3.8415 3.8082 3.7743 3.7398 3.7047 3.6689
7 5.5914 4.7374 4.3468 4.1203 3.9715 3.8660 3.7870 3.7257 3.6767 3.6365 3.5747 3.5107 3.4445 3.4105 3.3758 3.3404 3.3043 3.2674 3.2298
8 5.3177 4.4590 4.0662 3.8379 3.6875 3.5806 3.5005 3.4381 3.3881 3.3472 3.2839 3.2184 3.1503 3.1152 3.0794 3.0428 3.0053 2.9669 2.9276
9 5.1174 4.2565 3.8625 3.6331 3.4817 3.3738 3.2927 3.2296 3.1789 3.1373 3.0729 3.0061 2.9365 2.9005 2.8637 2.8259 2.7872 2.7475 2.7067
10 4.9646 4.1028 3.7083 3.4780 3.3258 3.2172 3.1355 3.0717 3.0204 2.9782 2.9130 2.8450 2.7740 2.7372 2.6996 2.6609 2.6211 2.5801 2.5379
 
11 4.8443 3.9823 3.5874 3.3567 3.2039 3.0946 3.0123 2.9480 2.8962 2.8536 2.7876 2.7186 2.6464 2.6090 2.5705 2.5309 2.4901 2.4480 2.4045
12 4.7472 3.8853 3.4903 3.2592 3.1059 2.9961 2.9134 2.8486 2.7964 2.7534 2.6866 2.6169 2.5436 2.5055 2.4663 2.4259 2.3842 2.3410 2.2962
13 4.6672 3.8056 3.4105 3.1791 3.0254 2.9153 2.8321 2.7669 2.7144 2.6710 2.6037 2.5331 2.4589 2.4202 2.3803 2.3392 2.2966 2.2524 2.2064
14 4.6001 3.7389 3.3439 3.1122 2.9582 2.8477 2.7642 2.6987 2.6458 2.6022 2.5342 2.4630 2.3879 2.3487 2.3082 2.2664 2.2229 2.1778 2.1307
15 4.5431 3.6823 3.2874 3.0556 2.9013 2.7905 2.7066 2.6408 2.5876 2.5437 2.4753 2.4034 2.3275 2.2878 2.2468 2.2043 2.1601 2.1141 2.0658
 
16 4.4940 3.6337 3.2389 3.0069 2.8524 2.7413 2.6572 2.5911 2.5377 2.4935 2.4247 2.3522 2.2756 2.2354 2.1938 2.1507 2.1058 2.0589 2.0096
17 4.4513 3.5915 3.1968 2.9647 2.8100 2.6987 2.6143 2.5480 2.4943 2.4499 2.3807 2.3077 2.2304 2.1898 2.1477 2.1040 2.0584 2.0107 1.9604
18 4.4139 3.5546 3.1599 2.9277 2.7729 2.6613 2.5767 2.5102 2.4563 2.4117 2.3421 2.2686 2.1906 2.1497 2.1071 2.0629 2.0166 1.9681 1.9168
19 4.3807 3.5219 3.1274 2.8951 2.7401 2.6283 2.5435 2.4768 2.4227 2.3779 2.3080 2.2341 2.1555 2.1141 2.0712 2.0264 1.9795 1.9302 1.8780
20 4.3512 3.4928 3.0984 2.8661 2.7109 2.5990 2.5140 2.4471 2.3928 2.3479 2.2776 2.2033 2.1242 2.0825 2.0391 1.9938 1.9464 1.8963 1.8432
 
21 4.3248 3.4668 3.0725 2.8401 2.6848 2.5727 2.4876 2.4205 2.3660 2.3210 2.2504 2.1757 2.0960 2.0540 2.0102 1.9645 1.9165 1.8657 1.8117
22 4.3009 3.4434 3.0491 2.8167 2.6613 2.5491 2.4638 2.3965 2.3419 2.2967 2.2258 2.1508 2.0707 2.0283 1.9842 1.9380 1.8894 1.8380 1.7831
23 4.2793 3.4221 3.0280 2.7955 2.6400 2.5277 2.4422 2.3748 2.3201 2.2747 2.2036 2.1282 2.0476 2.0050 1.9605 1.9139 1.8648 1.8128 1.7570
24 4.2597 3.4028 3.0088 2.7763 2.6207 2.5082 2.4226 2.3551 2.3002 2.2547 2.1834 2.1077 2.0267 1.9838 1.9390 1.8920 1.8424 1.7896 1.7330
25 4.2417 3.3852 2.9912 2.7587 2.6030 2.4904 2.4047 2.3371 2.2821 2.2365 2.1649 2.0889 2.0075 1.9643 1.9192 1.8718 1.8217 1.7684 1.7110
 
26 4.2252 3.3690 2.9752 2.7426 2.5868 2.4741 2.3883 2.3205 2.2655 2.2197 2.1479 2.0716 1.9898 1.9464 1.9010 1.8533 1.8027 1.7488 1.6906
27 4.2100 3.3541 2.9604 2.7278 2.5719 2.4591 2.3732 2.3053 2.2501 2.2043 2.1323 2.0558 1.9736 1.9299 1.8842 1.8361 1.7851 1.7306 1.6717
28 4.1960 3.3404 2.9467 2.7141 2.5581 2.4453 2.3593 2.2913 2.2360 2.1900 2.1179 2.0411 1.9586 1.9147 1.8687 1.8203 1.7689 1.7138 1.6541
29 4.1830 3.3277 2.9340 2.7014 2.5454 2.4324 2.3463 2.2783 2.2229 2.1768 2.1045 2.0275 1.9446 1.9005 1.8543 1.8055 1.7537 1.6981 1.6376
30 4.1709 3.3158 2.9223 2.6896 2.5336 2.4205 2.3343 2.2662 2.2107 2.1646 2.0921 2.0148 1.9317 1.8874 1.8409 1.7918 1.7396 1.6835 1.6223
 
40 4.0847 3.2317 2.8387 2.6060 2.4495 2.3359 2.2490 2.1802 2.1240 2.0772 2.0035 1.9245 1.8389 1.7929 1.7444 1.6928 1.6373 1.5766 1.5089
60 4.0012 3.1504 2.7581 2.5252 2.3683 2.2541 2.1665 2.0970 2.0401 1.9926 1.9174 1.8364 1.7480 1.7001 1.6491 1.5943 1.5343 1.4673 1.3893
120 3.9201 3.0718 2.6802 2.4472 2.2899 2.1750 2.0868 2.0164 1.9588 1.9105 1.8337 1.7505 1.6587 1.6084 1.5543 1.4952 1.4290 1.3519 1.2539
inf 3.8415 2.9957 2.6049 2.3719 2.2141 2.0986 2.0096 1.9384 1.8799 1.8307 1.7522 1.6664 1.5705 1.5173 1.4591 1.3940 1.3180 1.2214 1.0000
To index

F Table for alpha=.025

df2/df1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120 INF
1 647.7890 799.5000 864.1630 899.5833 921.8479 937.1111 948.2169 956.6562 963.2846 968.6274 976.7079 984.8668 993.1028 997.2492 1001.414 1005.598 1009.800 1014.020 1018.258
2 38.5063 39.0000 39.1655 39.2484 39.2982 39.3315 39.3552 39.3730 39.3869 39.3980 39.4146 39.4313 39.4479 39.4562 39.465 39.473 39.481 39.490 39.498
3 17.4434 16.0441 15.4392 15.1010 14.8848 14.7347 14.6244 14.5399 14.4731 14.4189 14.3366 14.2527 14.1674 14.1241 14.081 14.037 13.992 13.947 13.902
4 12.2179 10.6491 9.9792 9.6045 9.3645 9.1973 9.0741 8.9796 8.9047 8.8439 8.7512 8.6565 8.5599 8.5109 8.461 8.411 8.360 8.309 8.257
5 10.0070 8.4336 7.7636 7.3879 7.1464 6.9777 6.8531 6.7572 6.6811 6.6192 6.5245 6.4277 6.3286 6.2780 6.227 6.175 6.123 6.069 6.015
 
6 8.8131 7.2599 6.5988 6.2272 5.9876 5.8198 5.6955 5.5996 5.5234 5.4613 5.3662 5.2687 5.1684 5.1172 5.065 5.012 4.959 4.904 4.849
7 8.0727 6.5415 5.8898 5.5226 5.2852 5.1186 4.9949 4.8993 4.8232 4.7611 4.6658 4.5678 4.4667 4.4150 4.362 4.309 4.254 4.199 4.142
8 7.5709 6.0595 5.4160 5.0526 4.8173 4.6517 4.5286 4.4333 4.3572 4.2951 4.1997 4.1012 3.9995 3.9472 3.894 3.840 3.784 3.728 3.670
9 7.2093 5.7147 5.0781 4.7181 4.4844 4.3197 4.1970 4.1020 4.0260 3.9639 3.8682 3.7694 3.6669 3.6142 3.560 3.505 3.449 3.392 3.333
10 6.9367 5.4564 4.8256 4.4683 4.2361 4.0721 3.9498 3.8549 3.7790 3.7168 3.6209 3.5217 3.4185 3.3654 3.311 3.255 3.198 3.140 3.080
 
11 6.7241 5.2559 4.6300 4.2751 4.0440 3.8807 3.7586 3.6638 3.5879 3.5257 3.4296 3.3299 3.2261 3.1725 3.118 3.061 3.004 2.944 2.883
12 6.5538 5.0959 4.4742 4.1212 3.8911 3.7283 3.6065 3.5118 3.4358 3.3736 3.2773 3.1772 3.0728 3.0187 2.963 2.906 2.848 2.787 2.725
13 6.4143 4.9653 4.3472 3.9959 3.7667 3.6043 3.4827 3.3880 3.3120 3.2497 3.1532 3.0527 2.9477 2.8932 2.837 2.780 2.720 2.659 2.595
14 6.2979 4.8567 4.2417 3.8919 3.6634 3.5014 3.3799 3.2853 3.2093 3.1469 3.0502 2.9493 2.8437 2.7888 2.732 2.674 2.614 2.552 2.487
15 6.1995 4.7650 4.1528 3.8043 3.5764 3.4147 3.2934 3.1987 3.1227 3.0602 2.9633 2.8621 2.7559 2.7006 2.644 2.585 2.524 2.461 2.395
 
16 6.1151 4.6867 4.0768 3.7294 3.5021 3.3406 3.2194 3.1248 3.0488 2.9862 2.8890 2.7875 2.6808 2.6252 2.568 2.509 2.447 2.383 2.316
17 6.0420 4.6189 4.0112 3.6648 3.4379 3.2767 3.1556 3.0610 2.9849 2.9222 2.8249 2.7230 2.6158 2.5598 2.502 2.442 2.380 2.315 2.247
18 5.9781 4.5597 3.9539 3.6083 3.3820 3.2209 3.0999 3.0053 2.9291 2.8664 2.7689 2.6667 2.5590 2.5027 2.445 2.384 2.321 2.256 2.187
19 5.9216 4.5075 3.9034 3.5587 3.3327 3.1718 3.0509 2.9563 2.8801 2.8172 2.7196 2.6171 2.5089 2.4523 2.394 2.333 2.270 2.203 2.133
20 5.8715 4.4613 3.8587 3.5147 3.2891 3.1283 3.0074 2.9128 2.8365 2.7737 2.6758 2.5731 2.4645 2.4076 2.349 2.287 2.223 2.156 2.085
 
21 5.8266 4.4199 3.8188 3.4754 3.2501 3.0895 2.9686 2.8740 2.7977 2.7348 2.6368 2.5338 2.4247 2.3675 2.308 2.246 2.182 2.114 2.042
22 5.7863 4.3828 3.7829 3.4401 3.2151 3.0546 2.9338 2.8392 2.7628 2.6998 2.6017 2.4984 2.3890 2.3315 2.272 2.210 2.145 2.076 2.003
23 5.7498 4.3492 3.7505 3.4083 3.1835 3.0232 2.9023 2.8077 2.7313 2.6682 2.5699 2.4665 2.3567 2.2989 2.239 2.176 2.111 2.041 1.968
24 5.7166 4.3187 3.7211 3.3794 3.1548 2.9946 2.8738 2.7791 2.7027 2.6396 2.5411 2.4374 2.3273 2.2693 2.209 2.146 2.080 2.010 1.935
25 5.6864 4.2909 3.6943 3.3530 3.1287 2.9685 2.8478 2.7531 2.6766 2.6135 2.5149 2.4110 2.3005 2.2422 2.182 2.118 2.052 1.981 1.906
 
26 5.6586 4.2655 3.6697 3.3289 3.1048 2.9447 2.8240 2.7293 2.6528 2.5896 2.4908 2.3867 2.2759 2.2174 2.157 2.093 2.026 1.954 1.878
27 5.6331 4.2421 3.6472 3.3067 3.0828 2.9228 2.8021 2.7074 2.6309 2.5676 2.4688 2.3644 2.2533 2.1946 2.133 2.069 2.002 1.930 1.853
28 5.6096 4.2205 3.6264 3.2863 3.0626 2.9027 2.7820 2.6872 2.6106 2.5473 2.4484 2.3438 2.2324 2.1735 2.112 2.048 1.980 1.907 1.829
29 5.5878 4.2006 3.6072 3.2674 3.0438 2.8840 2.7633 2.6686 2.5919 2.5286 2.4295 2.3248 2.2131 2.1540 2.092 2.028 1.959 1.886 1.807
30 5.5675 4.1821 3.5894 3.2499 3.0265 2.8667 2.7460 2.6513 2.5746 2.5112 2.4120 2.3072 2.1952 2.1359 2.074 2.009 1.940 1.866 1.787
 
40 5.4239 4.0510 3.4633 3.1261 2.9037 2.7444 2.6238 2.5289 2.4519 2.3882 2.2882 2.1819 2.0677 2.0069 1.943 1.875 1.803 1.724 1.637
60 5.2856 3.9253 3.3425 3.0077 2.7863 2.6274 2.5068 2.4117 2.3344 2.2702 2.1692 2.0613 1.9445 1.8817 1.815 1.744 1.667 1.581 1.482
120 5.1523 3.8046 3.2269 2.8943 2.6740 2.5154 2.3948 2.2994 2.2217 2.1570 2.0548 1.9450 1.8249 1.7597 1.690 1.614 1.530 1.433 1.310
inf 5.0239 3.6889 3.1161 2.7858 2.5665 2.4082 2.2875 2.1918 2.1136 2.0483 1.9447 1.8326 1.7085 1.6402 1.566 1.484 1.388 1.268 1.000
To index

F Table for alpha=.01

df2/df1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 24 30 40 60 120 INF
1 4052.181 4999.500 5403.352 5624.583 5763.650 5858.986 5928.356 5981.070 6022.473 6055.847 6106.321 6157.285 6208.730 6234.631 6260.649 6286.782 6313.030 6339.391 6365.864
2 98.503 99.000 99.166 99.249 99.299 99.333 99.356 99.374 99.388 99.399 99.416 99.433 99.449 99.458 99.466 99.474 99.482 99.491 99.499
3 34.116 30.817 29.457 28.710 28.237 27.911 27.672 27.489 27.345 27.229 27.052 26.872 26.690 26.598 26.505 26.411 26.316 26.221 26.125
4 21.198 18.000 16.694 15.977 15.522 15.207 14.976 14.799 14.659 14.546 14.374 14.198 14.020 13.929 13.838 13.745 13.652 13.558 13.463
5 16.258 13.274 12.060 11.392 10.967 10.672 10.456 10.289 10.158 10.051 9.888 9.722 9.553 9.466 9.379 9.291 9.202 9.112 9.020
 
6 13.745 10.925 9.780 9.148 8.746 8.466 8.260 8.102 7.976 7.874 7.718 7.559 7.396 7.313 7.229 7.143 7.057 6.969 6.880
7 12.246 9.547 8.451 7.847 7.460 7.191 6.993 6.840 6.719 6.620 6.469 6.314 6.155 6.074 5.992 5.908 5.824 5.737 5.650
8 11.259 8.649 7.591 7.006 6.632 6.371 6.178 6.029 5.911 5.814 5.667 5.515 5.359 5.279 5.198 5.116 5.032 4.946 4.859
9 10.561 8.022 6.992 6.422 6.057 5.802 5.613 5.467 5.351 5.257 5.111 4.962 4.808 4.729 4.649 4.567 4.483 4.398 4.311
10 10.044 7.559 6.552 5.994 5.636 5.386 5.200 5.057 4.942 4.849 4.706 4.558 4.405 4.327 4.247 4.165 4.082 3.996 3.909
 
11 9.646 7.206 6.217 5.668 5.316 5.069 4.886 4.744 4.632 4.539 4.397 4.251 4.099 4.021 3.941 3.860 3.776 3.690 3.602
12 9.330 6.927 5.953 5.412 5.064 4.821 4.640 4.499 4.388 4.296 4.155 4.010 3.858 3.780 3.701 3.619 3.535 3.449 3.361
13 9.074 6.701 5.739 5.205 4.862 4.620 4.441 4.302 4.191 4.100 3.960 3.815 3.665 3.587 3.507 3.425 3.341 3.255 3.165
14 8.862 6.515 5.564 5.035 4.695 4.456 4.278 4.140 4.030 3.939 3.800 3.656 3.505 3.427 3.348 3.266 3.181 3.094 3.004
15 8.683 6.359 5.417 4.893 4.556 4.318 4.142 4.004 3.895 3.805 3.666 3.522 3.372 3.294 3.214 3.132 3.047 2.959 2.868
 
16 8.531 6.226 5.292 4.773 4.437 4.202 4.026 3.890 3.780 3.691 3.553 3.409 3.259 3.181 3.101 3.018 2.933 2.845 2.753
17 8.400 6.112 5.185 4.669 4.336 4.102 3.927 3.791 3.682 3.593 3.455 3.312 3.162 3.084 3.003 2.920 2.835 2.746 2.653
18 8.285 6.013 5.092 4.579 4.248 4.015 3.841 3.705 3.597 3.508 3.371 3.227 3.077 2.999 2.919 2.835 2.749 2.660 2.566
19 8.185 5.926 5.010 4.500 4.171 3.939 3.765 3.631 3.523 3.434 3.297 3.153 3.003 2.925 2.844 2.761 2.674 2.584 2.489
20 8.096 5.849 4.938 4.431 4.103 3.871 3.699 3.564 3.457 3.368 3.231 3.088 2.938 2.859 2.778 2.695 2.608 2.517 2.421
 
21 8.017 5.780 4.874 4.369 4.042 3.812 3.640 3.506 3.398 3.310 3.173 3.030 2.880 2.801 2.720 2.636 2.548 2.457 2.360
22 7.945 5.719 4.817 4.313 3.988 3.758 3.587 3.453 3.346 3.258 3.121 2.978 2.827 2.749 2.667 2.583 2.495 2.403 2.305
23 7.881 5.664 4.765 4.264 3.939 3.710 3.539 3.406 3.299 3.211 3.074 2.931 2.781 2.702 2.620 2.535 2.447 2.354 2.256
24 7.823 5.614 4.718 4.218 3.895 3.667 3.496 3.363 3.256 3.168 3.032 2.889 2.738 2.659 2.577 2.492 2.403 2.310 2.211
25 7.770 5.568 4.675 4.177 3.855 3.627 3.457 3.324 3.217 3.129 2.993 2.850 2.699 2.620 2.538 2.453 2.364 2.270 2.169
 
26 7.721 5.526 4.637 4.140 3.818 3.591 3.421 3.288 3.182 3.094 2.958 2.815 2.664 2.585 2.503 2.417 2.327 2.233 2.131
27 7.677 5.488 4.601 4.106 3.785 3.558 3.388 3.256 3.149 3.062 2.926 2.783 2.632 2.552 2.470 2.384 2.294 2.198 2.097
28 7.636 5.453 4.568 4.074 3.754 3.528 3.358 3.226 3.120 3.032 2.896 2.753 2.602 2.522 2.440 2.354 2.263 2.167 2.064
29 7.598 5.420 4.538 4.045 3.725 3.499 3.330 3.198 3.092 3.005 2.868 2.726 2.574 2.495 2.412 2.325 2.234 2.138 2.034
30 7.562 5.390 4.510 4.018 3.699 3.473 3.304 3.173 3.067 2.979 2.843 2.700 2.549 2.469 2.386 2.299 2.208 2.111 2.006
 
40 7.314 5.179 4.313 3.828 3.514 3.291 3.124 2.993 2.888 2.801 2.665 2.522 2.369 2.288 2.203 2.114 2.019 1.917 1.805
60 7.077 4.977 4.126 3.649 3.339 3.119 2.953 2.823 2.718 2.632 2.496 2.352 2.198 2.115 2.028 1.936 1.836 1.726 1.601
120 6.851 4.787 3.949 3.480 3.174 2.956 2.792 2.663 2.559 2.472 2.336 2.192 2.035 1.950 1.860 1.763 1.656 1.533 1.381
inf 6.635 4.605 3.782 3.319 3.017 2.802 2.639 2.511 2.407 2.321 2.185 2.039 1.878 1.791 1.696 1.592 1.473 1.325 1.000
To index

Content

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