# Random Forests

## Introductory Overview

A Random Forest consists of a collection or ensemble of simple tree predictors, each capable of producing a response when presented with a set of predictor values. For classification problems, this response takes the form of a class membership, which associates, or classifies, a set of independent predictor values with one of the categories present in the dependent variable. Alternatively, for regression problems, the tree response is an estimate of the dependent variable given the predictors. The Random Forest algorithm was developed by Breiman.

A Random Forest consists of an arbitrary number of simple trees, which are used to determine the final outcome. For classification problems, the ensemble of simple trees vote for the most popular class. In the regression problem, their responses are averaged to obtain an estimate of the dependent variable. Using tree ensembles can lead to significant improvement in prediction accuracy (i.e., better ability to predict new data cases).

## Technical Details

The response of each tree depends on a set of predictor values chosen independently (with replacement) and with the same distribution for all trees in the forest, which is a subset of the predictor values of the original data set. The optimal size of the subset of predictor variables is given by log_{2} *M*+1, where *M* is the number of inputs.

For classification problems, given a set of simple trees and a set of random predictor variables, the Random Forest method defines a margin function that measures the extent to which the average number of votes for the correct class exceeds the average vote for any other class present in the dependent variable. This measure provides us not only with a convenient way of making predictions, but also with a way of associating a confidence measure with those predictions.

For regression problems, *Random Forests* are formed by growing simple trees, each capable of producing a numerical response value. Here, too, the predictor set is randomly selected from the same distribution and for all trees. Given the above, the mean-square error for a Random Forest is given by:

mean error = (observed - tree response)^{2}

The predictions of the Random Forest are taken to be the average of the predictions of the trees:

where the index *k* runs over the individual trees in the forest.

Typically, Random Forests can flexibly incorporate missing data in the predictor variables. When missing data are encountered for a particular observation (case) during model building, the prediction made for that case is based on the last preceding (non-terminal) node in the respective tree. So, for example, if at a particular point in the sequence of trees a predictor variable is selected at the root (or other non-terminal) node for which some cases have no valid data, then the prediction for those cases is simply based on the overall mean at the root (or other non-terminal) node. Hence, there is no need to eliminate cases from the analysis if they have missing data for some of the predictors, nor is it necessary to compute surrogate split statistics.